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An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid and increases its boiling point. An antifreeze mixture is used to achieve freezing-point depression for cold environments and also achieves boiling-point elevation ("anti-boil") to allow higher coolant temperature. Freezing and boiling points are colligative properties of a solution, which depend on the concentration of the dissolved substance. Because water has good properties as a coolant, water plus antifreeze is used in internal combustion engines and other heat transfer applications, such as HVAC chillers and solar water heaters. The purpose of antifreeze is to prevent a rigid enclosure from bursting due to expansion when water freezes. Commercially, both the additive (pure concentrate) and the mixture (diluted solution) are called antifreeze, depending on the context. Careful selection of an antifreeze can enable a wide temperature range in which the mixture remains in the liquid phase, which is critical to efficient heat transfer and the proper functioning of heat exchangers. Salts are frequently used for de-icing, but salt solutions are not used for cooling systems because they can cause severe corrosion to metals. Instead, non-corrosive antifreezes are commonly used for critical de-icing, such as for aircraft wings.

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Four Letter Words [2001]

SongDuration 
Anymore3:09 
On and On4:17